Chromosomal Bar Codes Produced by Multicolor Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Multiple YAC Clones and Whole Chromosome Painting Probes
Colored chromosome staining patterns, termed chromosomal ‘bar codes’ (CBCs), were obtained on human chromosomes by fluorescence in situhybridization (FISH) with pools of Alu-PCR products from YAC dones containing human DNA inserts ranging from 100 kbp to 1 Mbp. In contrast to conventional G- or R-bands, the chromosomal position, extent, Individual color and relative signal intensity of each ‘bar’ could be modified depending on probe selection and labeling procedures. Alu-PCR amplification products were generated from 31 YAC clones which mapped to 37 different chromosome bands. For multiple color FISH, Alu-PCR amplification products from various clones were either biotinylated or labeled with digoxigenin. Probes from up to twenty YAC clones were used simultaneously to produce CBCs on selected human chromosomes. Evaluation using a cooled CCD camera and digital image analysis confirmed the high reproducibility of the bars from one metaphase spread to another. Combinatorial FISH with mixtures of whole chromosome paint probes was applied to paint seven chromosomes simultaneously in different colors along with a set of YAC clones which map to these chromosomes. We discuss the potential to construct analytical chromosomal bar codes adapted to particular needs of cytogenetic investigations and automated image analysis.