We studied the energetics of hover-feeding Anna's hummingbirds, using three different simultaneous techniques: heat loss as estimated via thermal imaging, metabolic rate as measured at a feeder mask using flow-through respirometry, and aerodynamic power estimated from wingbeat kinematic data. These three methods yielded comparable estimates of power output at ambient air temperatures ranging from 18 degrees to 26 degrees C, whereas heat imbalance at higher air temperatures (up to 34 degrees C) suggested loss by mechanisms other than convection and radiation from the body, such as evaporative cooling and enthalpy rise associated with exhaled air and excreted water and convective heat loss from the patagia. Hummingbirds increased wingbeat frequency and decreased stroke amplitude as air temperature increased, but overall muscle efficiency was found to be approximately constant over the experimental range of air temperatures.
Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12–15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot.